What is autism?
Autism is a lifelong developmental condition. It is also called Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). It takes in a wide range of different levels of ability and includes what was previously called Asperger’s syndrome.
A person with autism has problems with:
- communication (talking, understanding instructions and body language, making eye contact)
- repetitive behaviour (hand flapping, repeating words, playing with the same toys)
- sensory issues (avoiding certain textures, sounds or lights, or seeking them out)
About 1 in 100 Australians and New Zealanders are living with autism. It’s about four times more common in boys than in girls.
There is a huge variation in the way that autism affects a person’s life, from social and relationship issues to daily activities, school and work.
What causes autism?
The causes of autism are unknown. Current research suggests that genes and the way the brain develops play a part.
There is nothing a parent does that can cause autism. Vaccinations do not cause autism.
Signs and symptoms of autism
Symptoms usually appear in early childhood.
In a child you might notice:
- a lack of interest in other children
- not saying any words by age 2
- not making eye contact with you
- not showing you things they find, not pointing or waving goodbye
- repetitive play
- intense, narrow interests (spinning wheels of toys, opening and closing doors)
- seeking out sensations (licking toys or playground equipment, for example)
- avoiding sensations (tantrums in bright, noisy places)
- tantrums or discomfort when a routine changes
- hand flapping, walking on tip-toe or rocking back and forth.
If you are concerned about your child, talk to your GP (family doctor) or paediatrician.
In an adult you might notice:
- difficulty joining conversations and knowing what to say in social situations
- effort or anxiety in working out what others mean when they are talking
- trouble making friends
- trouble forming or keeping relationships
- intense interest in particular subjects
- anxiety or depression.
If you have symptoms that are affecting your daily life, it’s important to seek help.
As a first step, see your GP.
A GP can assess your symptoms and write you a referral to a psychiatrist, paediatrician or multi-disciplinary team.
Childcare workers, teachers and community health workers may also be able to help you. Some can also make referrals.
First steps to get help
How is autism diagnosed?
In Australia, autism is diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team, child psychiatrist or paediatrician.
In New Zealand, autism is usually diagnosed by a paediatrician or Child, Adolescent & Family Mental Health Service.
A team of health professionals involved in autism diagnosis may include:
- child psychiatrist
- clinical psychologist
- speech therapist
- occupational therapist.
Assessment for autism can involve three or four appointments over a few weeks. Your child's cognition (thinking skills), communication, physical health, home life and school or kindergarten will be carefully reviewed.
Diagnosis in adults
Generally adults are diagnosed through discussion and assessment with either a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist.
Why get a diagnosis?
In children, a diagnosis will:
- allow you to get help with their speech, learning and socialising
- open up a range of government and community services to help you and your child
- allow your child’s school to receive government funding
- help you to understand and learn about your child’s behaviour.
For adults a diagnosis may be useful for:
- getting a better understanding of any difficulties you have
- learning useful ways to cope
- finding a community of people who are going through the same thing
- getting proper treatment for any mental health issues.
People with autism can also have intellectual disability, fragile X syndrome, ADHD, or gastrointestinal issues.
In adulthood, mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder can be common.
How is autism treated?
Autism can’t be cured. But there are ways to make life easier for someone with autism and their family.
Language skills, socialising and the ability to perform daily tasks can be improved in all children with autism.
Early intervention programs
Early intervention programs help children with speech, learning daily tasks and playing with others.
Around 30 hours per week of specialist therapy is recommended.
This could be with:
- a therapist at a specialist centre your child visits daily
- a therapist who comes to your home
- a support worker at a regular kindergarten or school.
Intervention programs work best when they are started as early as possible (ideally before preschool age).
In rare cases, a psychiatrist might prescribe medication to help with extreme self-harm or aggression.
Medication may also be recommended for depression or anxiety.
What can a psychiatrist do for autism?
- make a diagnosis of autism alongside a team of other health professionals
- diagnose and treat ADHD, depression, anxiety or bipolar disorder
- prescribe medication if required
- provide referrals to speech therapists, neurologists, paediatricians, occupational therapists and psychologists
- connect you to community services
- provide medical reports for other doctors, schools or workplaces.
Find a psychiatrist near you who specialises in diagnosing autism
Support for people with autism
Help with daily activities
People with autism may benefit from:
- learning about autism and teaching others about their diagnosis
- having clear rules for social interactions (if someone says ‘hello’ say ‘hello’ back)
- visual aids (e.g. a drawing of what they should to do)
- a familiar environment
- reducing sensory overload
- good daily routines
- lots of socialising and play
- opportunities to develop things they are good at
- support for parents, siblings, grandparents, spouses and children.
There are play and parenting groups for the families and whānau of children with autism.