Dementia is a medical condition where damage to brain cells causes problems with memory, thinking and behaviour.
It's uncommon in people aged under 60. By age 85 around 1 in 5 people will have dementia.
While we all get a bit more forgetful as we get older, dementia is different. It is not a 'normal' part of ageing.
Most dementias are progressive, which means they get worse over time.
There are, however, medications and a range of supports – financial, emotional and physical – to help a person with dementia and their family and friends.
Causes of dementia
Dementia is most commonly caused by:
- Alzheimer’s disease (tangles and plaques on the nerves connecting brain cells)
- Vascular dementia (caused by strokes or blockages of blood vessels in the brain)
- Lewy body disease (proteins in the brain that damage cells)
- Fronto-temporal dementia (in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain).
A person's genes, environment and lifestyle play a part in whether someone will develop these diseases.
In most cases, doctors and researchers can't predict who will develop dementia.
Age is the greatest risk factor. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking and family history are other risks.
Aboriginal Australians are more likely to get dementia. They are also more likely to get it at a younger age.
You can reduce your risk of getting dementia by:
Signs and symptoms
At first you might notice problems with:
- your short-term memory (remembering what happened a few days or minutes ago)
- your ability to remember appointments, or the correct day / date.
Some examples of changes you might notice:
- making more mistakes at work or at home
- losing things or putting them in strange places
- finding hobbies such as sewing, knitting, or carpentry more difficult
- having trouble keeping track of characters and plots in books or movies.
As dementia progresses you might:
- have trouble working out where you are, or what time of day it is
- withdraw from family, friends and social activities
- be unable to remember names, events, places, things and faces
- have mood swings, depression or anxiety
- experience hallucinations
- have changes in your personality
- have changes in your behaviour – you might feel angry or be less inhibited
- be unable to walk, wash or dress
- have problems eating or swallowing.
The early symptoms of dementia can be vague.
If you have concerns about yourself or someone else you should seek help.
Help for dementia
As a first step, see your GP (family doctor).
A GP can assess your symptoms and write you a referral to a specialist doctor if required.
In New Zealand, a GP can refer you to a local specialist health service.
First steps to get help
Encouraging someone to get help
It’s common for a person with dementia to be unaware of their condition. They may become defensive if you suggest they might have a problem.
- Make a time for a conversation. You need to have their full attention, so do it when you are both free of distractions.
- Suggest they see their GP for a physical symptom (not sleeping well, for example).
- Make the appointment for them, and arrange transport.
- Write a letter to their GP.
Early and accurate diagnosis of dementia will rule out other treatable issues, and allow you to plan for the future.
Dementia symptoms can be confused with symptoms of depression, infections and other conditions.
A specialist doctor is best placed to diagnose dementia.
This could be a:
- psychiatrist (mental health specialist)
- psychogeriatrician (psychiatrist specialised in illnesses of older people)
- geriatrician (specialist in old-age medicine) or
- neurologist (specialist in the brain and nervous system).
Your doctor will only diagnose dementia after a full assessment.
This might include:
- a medical history
- tests of your memory, thinking, mood and behaviour
- blood tests
- a brain scan.
Treatments for dementia
Dementia gets worse over time and unfortunately there is no cure.
Researchers are working to find new ways to prevent and treat dementia.
There are ways to improve some symptoms and make life easier and more enjoyable.
Psychological treatment, activities and home life
Listening to old music, talking about the past and going through old photo albums may help a person to connect with others.
For later stage dementia, pets, painting and massage can prevent restlessness and have a calming effect. An uncluttered, well-lit living space will help.
There are medications available that can help with memory and thinking. They tend to work for a short time only, from 6 months to 2 years.
Other medications can be prescribed to help with depression, anxiety, agitation or sleeping problems.
Medication for problems with changed behaviour will only be suggested if other treatments have been tried and are not working well.
Sometimes medication can make dementia symptoms worse. Talk to your psychiatrist or treating doctor if you have questions.
More about medication for dementia
New treatments are being developed all the time.
A clinical trial is a research study using volunteers to test new medications. It is a good way to access the newest drugs and other treatments.
More about clinical trials
A psychiatrist can:
- assess for dementia
- make a diagnosis of dementia
- help you and your family or carers manage the illness
- treat any depression, anxiety or psychotic symptoms (e.g. hallucinations)
- help with behavioural issues such as aggression
- provide referrals to other health professionals
- review your medications to find out if they are causing problems with memory and thinking
- link you into community services
- admit you to hospital if needed
- connect you to relevant clinical trials.
There are some psychiatrists who are experts in treating dementia. They work in hospitals, community settings, residential aged care and private practice.
Find a psychiatrist near you who specialises in diagnosing dementia